The significance of maintenance
Drilling machinery maintenance is a short term for drilling machinery maintenance and repair.Maintenance is the technical activities carried out to maintain, extend or improve the performance of drilling machinery;Repair is the technical activity to restore or improve the performance of drilling machinery.The role of maintenance can be summarized as "increasing profits, saving raw materials, optimizing return on investment, extending the service life of equipment, reducing production costs, and avoiding accidents and technical disasters".Maintenance for drilling machinery in construction in an orderly and efficient work to make an important early guarantee, it can be said that, with the continuous emergence of high-tech products, advanced maintenance can ensure that the equipment run without failure, and can make the equipment often keep in good condition.
Drilling rig is a set of high-power combined unit composed of multiple equipment, including the following eight systems: lifting system, rotary system, circulation system, power system, transmission system, control system, base, vehicle and auxiliary system.The lifting system, rotary system and circulation system are the three main working units of the drilling rig, which directly serve the drilling production.This unit is mainly used to run drilling tools during tripping operations.Run casing during completion operations;Control the pressure and feed the drilling tool during normal drilling.It is composed of winch, auxiliary brake, swimming system (crown, swimming block, big hook and wire rope), derrick, wellhead tools and mechanization equipment (crane, lifting ring, bois, power tongs, rope rotary device, vertical root moving mechanism), etc.It can drive the drill string to rotate and drive the bit to break the rock.Then there is the circulation system, which can provide high-pressure drilling fluid to remove the broken rock at the bottom of the well to ensure the continued drilling, while cooling the bit, preventing blowout and well collapse, transferring the power to drive the downhole power drilling tool (turbine, screw power drilling tool).It is composed of drilling pump, surface manifold, drilling fluid pool and drilling fluid tank, drilling fluid purification equipment and drilling fluid dispensing equipment, etc.Power drive equipment to supply power to the two main working units and other auxiliary units.Composed of internal combustion engine and its oil supply equipment, or AC and DC motor and its power supply, protection and control equipment;The transmission system equipment connects the engine and the working machine to realize the energy transfer and distribution from the driving equipment to the working unit and the conversion of the movement force.Deceleration, parallel, reversing, speed and reversing mechanism, mechanical transmission, hydraulic transmission, hydraulic transmission, electric transmission and other forms of composition;The control system is used to direct the coordinated operation of each unit;The monitoring instrument is used to measure the bottom hole parameters and monitor the operating conditions of the system equipment.The control system is composed of mechanical control, gas control, electric control, hydraulic control and electric, gas and liquid mixed control.Monitoring indicators include weight meter, drilling pump pressure gauge, drilling eight parameters meter (hook load, drilling rate and well depth, pump pressure, rotary torque, clamp torque, rotary transfer, pump punching times, pump outlet displacement), while drilling measurement system.
(1)Common faults of oil drilling machinery (1) Damage fault.Such as fracture, cracking, pitting, ablative, deformation, strain, crack, indentation and so on.
(2) Degenerate fault.Such as aging, deterioration, spalling, abnormal wear and tear.
(3) Loose fault. Such as loose, fall off, etc.
(4) Maladjustment fault.Such as pressure is too high or too low, stroke disorder, clearance is too large or too small, interference, etc.
(5) plugging and leakage fault.Such as blockage, water leakage, gas leakage, oil infiltration, etc
(6) Plugging and leakage fault. Such as blockage, water leakage, gas leakage, oil infiltration, etc
2. Caused by the failure of the consequences of the following four categories:
(1) Hidden fault consequences
A Hidden fault has no direct impact, but it can lead to serious, often catastrophic, multiple failure consequences.
(2) Safety and environmental consequences
If the failure will cause casualties, there are safety consequences;If a fault causes an enterprise to violate industrial, local, national, or international environmental standards, the fault has environmental consequences.
(3) Usability consequences
A failure is considered to have utility consequences if it affects production (output, product quality, after-sales service, or operating costs other than direct maintenance costs).
(4) Non-use consequences
Falling into this category are obvious functional failures that do not affect safety or production and involve only direct maintenance costs.
3, Oil drilling and mechanical equipment failure prevention
In order to better improve the utilization rate of oil drilling machinery and equipment, it is a more reliable way to prevent the failure of oil drilling machinery and equipment through good maintenance, in which the prevention measures mainly focus on the following points:
1) Good lubrication can be formed a good oil film between the parts in the mutual friction to reduce the frictional force that extends drilling equipment working life. Via the investigation to mechanical stoppage to discovery that a quite part of it is due to improper lubrication, meanwhile, the lubrication ensure the gap between various parts that slow down the wear caused by vibration between the parts. While the good lubrication would go away with the excess heat from friction. It should opt the lubrication according to seasons.
2) The operation of oil drilling equipment should be carried out in strict accordance with the specifications. Good operation can highly reduce the failure rate of machinery.
Petroleum industry wearing parts: valve, hydraulic rod, valve core, hydraulic cylinder, gate, drill, etc., using Shanghai Duo Mu plasma hardfacing machine can effectively repair petroleum equipment, wear resistance and corrosion resistance, prolong the service life of machinery.